Xylanit shall be applied intramuscularly or intravenously (slowly, for 1 to 2 minutes). In cattle, Xylanit shall be applied intramuscularly at the following dosage: 0.25-1.5 mL per 100 kg of animal body weight (0.05 to 0.3 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight) depending on the operation performed. Depending on the applied dose of Xylanit, the animal may experience sedative and myorelaxant effects of various strength:
- if the applied dose is 0.25 mL per 100 kg, an animal experiences a light sedative effect, a decrease in muscular tonus; its position should not be changed. This dose is used to calm an animal.
- if the applied dose is 0.5 mL per 100 kg, the animal experiences a moderate sedative effect, a significant decrease in muscular tonus (the animal usually remains in a vertical position) and a small analgesic effect. This dose is used for clinical examination and short surgical operations (mostly those that are performed with local anesthesia).
- if the applied dose is 1.0 mL per 100 kg, the animal experiences a considerable sedative effect and decrease in muscular tonus (the animal lies on the ground) and a strong analgesic effect. This dose is used for long surgical interventions, possibly performed with local or general anesthesia.
- if the applied dose is 1.5 mL per 100 kg, the animal experiences a strong sedative effect, total decrease in muscular tonus and a strong analgesic effect. This dose is used only in adult animals with prior starvation in order to perform highly painful and long surgical interventions and for obstetric aid.
In small ruminants, Xylanit is applied intramuscularly at the following dosage: 0.05-0.25 mL per 10 kg of animal body weight (0.1 to 0.5 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight) depending on the operation performed.
In horses, Xylanit is applied either intramuscularly at the following dosage: 7.5-15.0 mL per 100 kg of animal body weight (0.15 to 0.3 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight); or intravenously (slowly) at the following dosage: 3.0-5.0 mL per 100 kg of animal body weight (0.6 to 1.0 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight) — depending on the relevant operation and the type of the higher nervous system activity of the treated animal.
The sedative effect is usually achieved in 5 minutes after the injection of the drug; it lasts for approximately 20 minutes. Very excitable animals receive maximal doses of Xylanit; it is not recommended to introduce the drug, if the animal is in a supine position.
In dogs, in cases of non-painful operations, Xylanit is applied intramuscularly at the following dosage: 0.5 to 1.0 mLper 10 kg of animal body weight (1 to 2 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight).
In cats, Xylanit is applied either intramuscularly or subdermally at the following dosage: 0.15 mLper 1 kg of animal body weight (3 mg of xylazine hydrochloride per 1 kg of animal body weight).
In case of painful operations, Xylanit is applied in conjunction with other medical drugs (barbiturates, analgesics or local anesthetics).
Barbiturate-induced anesthetics should be administered no less than after 20 minutes of Xylanit application, i.e. after a strong sedative effect occurred. If these conditions are met, barbiturate concentration can be reduced by 2 to 3 times.
The treated animals should not be disturbed until Xylanit is in its full effect. If the required degree of sedation has not been achieved, it is not recommended to apply additional injections.
Higher doses of Xylanit may be applied only within 24 hours after the animal is completely recovered in its physiological state.
After application of Xylanit, the treated animal must be observed until complete recovery of its physiological state. If Xylanit has to be applied simultaneously with cataleptic and anesthetic drugs, their doses should be decreased by 2 or 3 times compared to the amount indicated in the package insert. After application of Xylanit, some animals may experience temporary decrease in blood pressure and increased pulse and respiratory rate. These symptoms disappear spontaneously without any other veterinary drugs required. In extreme cases of respiratory distress, the chest of an affected animal is to be massaged to restore normal breathing.
High doses of Xylanit may cause hyper salivation in cattle. In cattle, if the operation has to be performed in lateral or supine position, the chest has to be supported, while the head and the neck have to be bowed, if possible, to avoid aspiration with saliva or ruminal liquid. Atropin sulfate can be effective in preventing excessive salivation.
In case of overdose and respiratory failure, an animal is subject to a cold shower and artificial respiration.
Yohimbine, tolazoline and atipamezole (α-adrenoceptor blockers) are specific antidotes of xylazine hydrochloride and they shall be applied to animals according to the instructions.
Avoid using Xylanite in females at the last third of gestation, as the drug has an oxytocinlike effect on the uterus (except in cases of obstetrics), animals with a mechanical damage to the gastrointestinal tract (blockage of the esophagus, gastric inversion, hernia), and those with a history of cardiac muscle conduction. In animals suffered from lung diseases, the drug should be used with caution.